DNA replication is the process of copying genetic material from a DNA sequence to pass it to new cells and offspring through. Precisely, all humans inherit similar characteristics from their parents through DNA replication process. Typically, the primary objective of this replication process is to get a matching copy of the original DNA.
If there is any problem or error in the process, it will lead to mutations. Even though the mutations are extremely disastrous to human cells, some mutations will only not bring any danger to the body. In fact, some of these mutations will play a significant role in diversifying cell offspring. Also, DNA replication process is vital for the growth of cells and reproduction system of the body.
In contrast to DNA replication process, DNA repair is a pool of processes to identify and correct the damage to the DNA molecules within an encoded genome. The human bodies are subjected to DNA damage from normal metabolic activities and environmental factors like UV light and radiation. Because of this danger, around one million individual molecules face abrasions per cell per day.
DNA repair process heavily relies on several factors including the age of the cell, the cell type, and the extracellular environment. If a human cell accumulates some DNA damages, it will face three possible situations –
- A state of dormancy, which is irreversible (termed as senescence)
- Cell suicide, commonly known as programmed cell death or apoptosis
- Unregulated cell division, which will lead to a cancerous tumor
The ability to repair DNA damage is essential for the integrity of its genome. Therefore, this ability is severely important to the normal functionality of the organism. To conclude, human life span is greatly influenced by DNA damage repair and protection system.